Tau is a small protein with a short name but a large reputation because of its association with multiple brain diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The tau protein is predominantly found in brain cells (neurons).
The normal tau protein forms part of a structure called a microtubule. One of the functions of the microtubule is to help transport nutrients and other important substances from one part of the nerve cell to another.
Tau is abundant inside neurons. Tau proteins in the brains of people with AD go through a molecular change that causes them to misshape and collect in messy tangles.
Role of Tau
Tau tangles typically are a sign that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rapidly getting worse. Current theories hold that amyloid-beta and tau interact in ways to make the disease progress, and scientists are investigating how tau may be involved in spreading AD throughout the brain.
Explore More of Our 360° Approach
- Battling Amyloid Beta
- Blood and the Brain in Dementia
- Immunity and Inflammation
- Biology of APO E and Lipids
- Cell Death
- New Approaches
Genes are the “master blueprint” that instructs our cells to make unique proteins which in turn build, operate, and repair human tissue. Humans have an estimated 24,000 genes along our 23 matched pairs of chromosomes (46 in all), and “genomics” refers to the field that studies all of them at once.
A biological marker (biomarker) is a measurable substance in an organism whose presence is indicative of some phenomenon such as disease or infection. Biomarkers can help doctors and scientists diagnose diseases and health conditions, find health risks in a person, monitor responses to treatment, and see how a person's disease or health condition changes over time.
Battling Amyloid Beta
There are many versions of amyloid protein in the human body, and most serve a useful role. One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid plaques (abnormally configured proteins) between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain.
Blood and the Brain in Dementia
Scientists are interested in developing a screening tool for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in blood. A simple blood draw is much less invasive than a spinal tap and may prove more cost effective. Developing blood biomarkers that accurately depict brain changes has proven challenging, as levels of AD hallmark proteins in the blood are low, but there are some very recent promising results observing tau and the ratio of Aβ42 and Aβ40.
Immunity and Inflammation
One theory about Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is that it may be triggered, in part, by a breakdown in the brain’s immune system.
Biology of APO E and Lipids
Alzheimer's disease (AD). Its primary function is to regulate a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats (lipids) in the body. However, APOE has several common variants (or "alleles") whose effects vary.
The human brain has an estimated 100 billion neurons. Extending from each of them is a long fiber, known as an “axon,” which can run several feet. Each axon forms a connection, known as a “synapse” with another neuron, creating a circuit over which brain signals travel. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), individual neurons die and do not regenerate; while others have brains that are more are resilient and respond to meet changing demands.
Years of innovative and dedicated research have paid off with the discovery of numerous factors contributing to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. With a disease as complex as this one, it’s very helpful to find multiple points where it may be possible to slow or halt its progress.